Tuesday, 26 August 2014

Prosperity for All? Economic, Social and Political Change in New Zealand since 1935

My single authored book entitled – Prosperity for All? Economic, Social and Political Change in New Zealand since 1935 – was published by Cengage (Melbourne) in 2005. I plan to complete a revised, expanded and updated edition in 2016.

I have posted the back cover description and the table of contents so that people can work out if it is likely to be useful and interesting.

Back Cover Description:
This book draws upon years of original research to provide a lively, lucid and compelling account of economic, social and political change in New Zealand since 1935. It assembles a wealth of factual information, that is not easily accessible elsewhere, in order to ascertain whether or not this change has brought prosperity for all. The carefully reached conclusion is that extensive inequalities of class, gender and ethnicity abound and have increased since the mid-1970s.


With respect to New Zealand’s political history, this book describes, explains and critically evaluates the rise and fall of the Keynesian welfare state, the shift towards neoliberalism from 1984 to 1999, and the Fifth Labour Government’s Third Way.


The book is organised thematically and chronologically to make it clear, accessible and user friendly. Reading guides at the end of each chapter enable the reader to explore issues in greater depth. This book will be illuminating not only for students and academics in economics, history, politics, sociology and public policy, but also for non-academic readers wanting to know more about the most important transformations in the economy, society and polity since 1935.


Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: Economy

1.    From Long Boom to Prolonged Stagnation: New Zealand’s Post-War Economic     Development    18


1.1)    End of the Golden Weather: from Boom to Stagnation    19
1.2)    Monetarist and Keynesian Explanations of the Collapse of the Post-War Long Boom    21
1.3)    The Marxist Explanation of the Collapse of the Post-War Boom    23
1.4)    Monetarist, Keynesian and Marxist Interpretations of Disinflation from 1984 to 1992,
    and the Recoveries from 1993 to 2005    44


Part II: Civil Society

2.    The Changing Class Structure    58
2.1)    The Reality of Class Inequality    59
2.2)    Theorising Class Inequality — Liberal, Weberian and Marxist Approaches    65
2.3)    The Class Structure of New Zealand Society    74

3.    Ethnicity, Gender and Movements for Change     86
3.1)    Ethnic Inequality: A Brief Description    88
3.2)    The Underlying Causes of Ethnic Inequality    95
3.3)    Gender Inequality: A Brief Description    101
3.4)    The Underlying Causes of Gender Inequality    110

4.    Power Shifts on Contested Terrain: Business versus Workers and Social
    Movements     121

4.1)    Capitalism and Class Struggle: The Power of Capital versus the Power of Labour    122
4.2)    The Fire Last Time: 1968 and after    130
4.3)    The Great Moving Right Show, 1978-99    143
4.4)    Keeping Government Business Friendly, 1999 and after    158


Part III: Polity

5.    The Rise of Keynesianism and the Post-War Keynesian Consensus, 1935-1972     166
5.1)    The Rise of Keynesianism, 1935-49    166
5.2)    The Post-War Keynesian Consensus, 1949-72    177

6.    The Crisis of Keynesianism, 1972-1984: from Muldoon’s Interventionism to     Rogernomics     191
6.1)    The Breakdown of the Post-War Keynesian Consensus and the Fiscal Crisis of the Keynesian
    Welfare State    191
6.2)    A Swing to the Left: The Third Labour Government, 1972-75    198
6.3)    A Swing to the Right: The Third (Muldoon) National Government, 1975-81    203
6.4)    The Wage and Price Freeze and Think Big: The Muldoon Government, 1981-84    210

7.    Treasury’s Role in State Policy Formulation during the Post-War Era: Importing     Economic Orthodoxy    214
7.1)    The Institutional Sources of Treasury’s Power and Influence    215
7.2)    Treasury During the Keynesian Era: A Moderator of ‘Over-Violent Private Competition and Ambitions’    217
7.3)    The New Right and Treasury’s Briefing Papers: Herald of Free Enterprise    219
7.4)     Treasury’s Role in the Shift from Keynesianism to Neoliberalism    230
7.5)    Treasury and the Third Way: Entrenching and Extending Neoliberalism    232

8.    The New Right in Power: The Fourth Labour Government, 1984-1990     238
8.1)    The Fourth Labour Government: An Overview    239
8.2)    The Monetarist Disinflationary Macroeconomic Strategy     246
8.3)    From State Intervention to Market Liberalization: Supply-Side Microeconomic Reform    247
8.4)    Industrial Relations Reform: The Labour Relations Act 1987    249
8.5)    Fiscal, Taxation and Social Policy    251
8.6)    Public Sector Reform    257

9.    Completing Labour’s Unfinished Business: National Governments, 1990-1999     264
9.1)    The Fourth National Government: An Overview    264
9.2)    Anti-Union Industrial Relations Reform: The Employment Contracts Act 1991    280
9.3)    National’s Neoliberal Redesign of the Welfare State    289

10.    The Fifth Labour Government: A Third Way Beyond Keynesianism and     Neoliberalism?     300

10.1)    The Fifth Labour Government: An Overview    301
10.2)    The Third Way    307
10.3)    Softening the Neoliberal Policy Regime    311
10.4)    The Veneer is Social Democratic but the Substance is Neoliberal    317
10.5)    Making Sense of the Third Way    318

11.    The Historic Shift to Neoliberalism and the Third Way: Explanation, Critique,
    and Alternatives    323

11.1)    Explanation    323
11.2)    Critique    325
11.3)    Alternatives    334

Appendix I: Glossary of Key Terms    338

Bibliography    344

Monday, 4 August 2014

The Occupy Movement and Small-a Anarchism

I've written a review article focusing on David Graeber's account of Occupy Wall Street in his book - The Democracy Project. http://newsocialist.org/760-the-democracy-project-a-review

Graeber advocates "small-a anarchism" and consensus decision-making. In what I hope is a constructively critical review, I highlight some of the problems with this particular form of anarchism and the model of consensus decision-making that it promotes. This is not, by the way, an anti-anarchist rant. Class struggle anarchists would probably agree with all but one of the critical points I make.

Among other things, I am critical of the kind of consensus decision-making advocated by Graeber and small-a anarchists, on the grounds that "There is considerable evidence that consensus decision-making provides those who are time rich with substantially more influence than those who are time poor because of parental responsibilities and/or paid work commitments." I am not convinced that consensus decion-making alienates less people than the use of voting in situations where a consensus cannot be reached easily.

In the process of researching this article I read a superb account and critical evaluation of contemporary anarchism at http://isreview.org/issue/72/contemporary-anarchism. See also a socialist critique of prefigurative politics at: http://isreview.org/issue/92/reflections-prefigurative-politics.
For an excellent socialist evaluation of Occupy Wall Street see: http://isreview.org/issue/81/balance-sheet-occupy-wall-street

Thursday, 31 July 2014

Israel's war in Gaza

I am being interviewed about the socialist perspective on Israel's war in Gaza on Radio New Zealand National next Monday (August 4) at 8.45pm.
Eric Ruder makes the important point that: "Those who stand for democracy and against colonialism must reject the 'blame Hamas' rhetoric and put the blame where it belongs--on the colonial settler state of Israel and its loyal supporter, the U.S."

http://socialistworker.org/2014/07/29/why-resistance-is-justified
Socialists advocate a one state solution, which is the view that Israel is a profoundly racist state that has been developed through the violent dispossession of the original inhabitants of Palestine, and that what is required in future is the creation of a democratic and secular Palestinian state with equal citizenship rights for both Israelis and Palestinians.
Once it's done I will post a link to the interview here. 
http://www.radionz.co.nz/audio/player/20144291 

A listener suggested that I should have been critical of Hamas. I replied as follows: 

Fact: the Israelis have killed over 1900 Palestinians, while Hamas has killed 67 Israelis, only three of whom at last count were civilians. Any sane person who takes the time to look at the history and recent facts pertaining to the Zionist colonisation of Palestine, will readily acknowledge that Israel started this war. So if you care about what is happening in Gaza, it is vitally important to reject the 'blame Hamas' propaganda of Israel and its American backers. It is a question of intellectual and political priorities.

There were all sorts of other things that I didn't have time to say in that 15 minute interview. What I did say was that socialists, meaning the socialists who clearly and consistently side with the people of Gaza against the Israeli slaughter of innocent people, adopt a position of "unconditional but critical support"- meaning that we have no right to impose conditions on our support of the Palestinian people, including expecting a certain degree of conformity with our political outlook, but that we reserve the right to be critical of political Islam.



In this respect, it is important to note that from 1947 to the 1970s the bulk of the Palestinian resistance to Zionist colonisation was secular. The rise of Hamas is largely due to the failures of the secular left to provide effective leadership in the struggle against the Israeli occupation. As Mostafa Omar observes:


"The failure of the PLO [Palestinian Liberation Organization] and its left wing over the past 30 years to provide a clear, effective leadership in the national struggle or to win any of the rights that Palestinians desperately await has hurt the credibility of secular organizations. Moreover, the anti-democratic and corrupt practices of the Palestinian Authority [which runs pockets of territory in the West Bank not occupied by Israeli settlers and armed forces] have turned many ... Palestinians against it. These conditions explain why, in recent years, a large section of Palestinian society has looked to the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) and, to a lesser degree, the Islamic Jihad, to resist Israel. 

Hamas's formal opposition to the Olso accords [that sought to establish a two state solution on the basis of the PLO’s recognition and acceptance of the legitimacy of the state of Israel] and Palestinian negotiator's endless concessions resonate with people who recognize the futility of negotiations. Its insistence on the liberation of the whole of Palestine connects with the aspirations of Palestinian refugees to return to their own country." In Lance Selfa (ed), The Struggle For Palestine, Haymarket Books, Chicago, 2002, p.195.

Although the growing popularity and influence of Hamas may be understandable, this does not, however, mean that it should be interpreted as a positive development for the Palestinian resistance. Indeed, as Omar also observes, "for the Palestinian movement, which has been historically secular and left oriented, increased support for Islamist politics marks a big step backward." (2002, p.197). It marks a step backwards for at least seven reasons.


Firstly, Hamas is committed to the creation of an Islamic state in Palestine. This is a one state perspective that will never bring peace to the Palestinian people, fails to acknowledge the important role that Palestinian Christians have played in the resistance movement, and leaves no place for those Jews (albeit a small minority of the Israeli population) who oppose Zionism and the state that it has created on Palestinian soil.


Secondly, related to this, Hamas is not an anti-capitalist organisation and also promotes reactionary and sexist ideas with respect to the position that women should occupy in Palestinian society. It considers the creation of an Islamic capitalist society governed by an Islamic state to be the solution to the major problems faced by the Palestinian people. Socialists fundamentally reject this.


Thirdly, "due to its conservative ideology, Hamas is unable to challenge the different Arab regimes that ally themselves with the U.S., especially the right-wing Islamic monarchies in the Gulf, such as Saudi Arabia" (2002, p. 197).


Fourth, "Hamas's own characterisation of the struggle against Israel as a continuation of an age-old struggle between Muslims and Jews mirrors Israel's own propaganda. … Hamas's anti-Jewish propaganda, while a reaction to Israel's crimes against the Palestinian people, diverts attention from Israel’s real role as a watchdog for U.S. imperialism in the area (2002: 198).


Fifth the leadership of Hamas is largely drawn from the middle class and it advocates a class alliance of all Palestinians in the struggle against Israel. In practice, this means that the interests of workers must be subordinated to those of Palestinian capitalists.
 

Sixth, “Hamas’s backward social positions, especially regarding women, Jews and Christians, constantly undermines the struggle against Israel” (2002: 198).

Finally, Hamas subscribes to an elitist conception of the struggle for the national liberation of the Palestinian people. Rather than focusing on mass action from below being the key to defeating Israel, instead “it substitutes the actions of a tiny minority of militants for the struggle of the majority. Its reliance on individual military attacks against Israel, although popular, fails to involve the majority of ordinary Palestinians in the struggle against Israel” (2002, p.199).

For a more current critical assessment of Hamas from a socialist perspective see: http://socialistworker.org/2014/08/05/how-do-revolutionaries-view-hamas

  
Despite these obvious limitations, there is, however, plenty of evidence that Hamas, for all of its faults, is leading the struggle of the Palestinian people in Gaza to defend themselves against Israeli aggression, and that it is widely supported by them for doing so. For more detail see this article: http://socialistworker.org/.../why-resistance-is-justified

This is not, however, to suggest that socialists adopt an uncritical position or turn a blind eye to the failings of Hamas, which are undoubtedly real. As socialists we are critical of political Islam as a strategy for progressive change, and where an Islamic organisation clearly is thoroughly reactionary and using terrorist tactics, as is the case with ISIS, we don't support it in anyway. 

Sunday, 6 July 2014

The Future Socialist Society (Brian S. Roper’s next book).


As indicated in my profile, my research is organised within two programmes. The first focuses on the past, present and future of democracy. The second focuses on the political history, historical sociology and political economy of New Zealand since 1935 (although my research in this programme occasionally goes back much earlier to Maori society prior to white settler colonisation). My planned NZ focused research will be described in a separate entry.

Within the democracy research programme, my most important publication is my recent book: The History of Democracy ISBN 978-0-7453-3189-8, published by Pluto Press (London) in 2013. Translated editions are forthcoming in China, Germany and Turkey.
Links to reviews of this book can be found on this blog at: http://briansroper.blogspot.co.nz/2013/05/reviews-of-history-of-democracy.html

The next book within this programme, which I am currently working on, is entitled: The Future Socialist Society. The title is inspired by, and borrowed with permission from, an outstanding pamphlet by John Molyneux (available among other places in Arguments for Revolutionary Socialism, Second Edition, Bookmarks, London, 1991, pp. 82-109).

This book addresses four key questions: What makes socialism necessary? What makes socialism possible? What are likely to be the central features of socialism beyond capitalism? What makes socialism desirable?

In response to these questions, it argues that the scale of exploitation and inequality, recurring and increasingly global economic crises, inter-state geopolitical rivalry and military conflict, global warming, and the absence of substantive democracy within liberal democracies, underlines the necessity of socialism.

The capitalist development of the productive forces, historical progressiveness of liberal representative democracy, despite its obvious limitations, and increasing size of the working class on a global scale, makes socialism possible.

In order to identify what socialism beyond capitalism might be like the book then turns to a consideration of the historical antecedents of socialist participatory democracy, focusing on the aspects of democracy in a future socialist society that will to varying degrees draw upon some of the positive features of Athenian democracy, liberal representative democracy, and historical attempts to create socialism such as the Paris Commune and Russian Revolution.

Building upon the experience of previous attempts to create participatory forms of democracy, including some of those that have taken place more recently, the book describes the social, economic and political arrangements that will be necessary if a socialist society is to be qualitatively more egalitarian, libertarian, peaceful, democratic and environmentally sustainable than advanced capitalist civilisation.

One of the most common objections to socialism is the argument that all conceivable attempts to create socialism by revolutionary means will inevitably degenerate into some kind of authoritarianism, especially if the revolutionary government is forced to defend itself by military means. This leads Bobbio, Held, and others to argue that socialism can only be created within the institutional framework of representative democracy.

Against this view, I argue that there are likely to be a series of constitutional protections and institutional mechanisms at the core of a radically democratic workers’ state that will prevent the revolution from degenerating into authoritarianism. Ultimately the real threat of authoritarianism arises from the defenders of capitalism who support violent counter-revolution. The best way to defend and foster liberty is to focus, in theory and in practice, on the collective creation of a socialist society and democratic system of government that transcends both capitalism and liberal representative democracy.

Above all else, what makes socialism desirable is the creative imagining, and actual possibility of collectively building, a world that is more egalitarian, libertarian, democratic, peaceful, and environmentally sustainable.

Wednesday, 26 February 2014

POLS 208 Democracy Music Video Screenings 2014

 Music Videos- Selected from a Wide Range of Alternative Music Genres
• Sharon van Etten- Tell Me
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXpP5IhnAaM
• Little Green Cars- Harper Lee
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHwMDr6dMHI
• Little Green Cars- Big Red Dragon
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0tDSaAMWOs 
• Lady Lamb The Beekeeper- The Nothing Part II
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qv4I58bKX0A

• Yumi Zouma - The Brae
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-F-bghLhWrg 
• Palma Violets- Best of Friends
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poFXWUTEs1k
• Of Monsters and Men- Mountain Sound
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gEVaniPOmU
• First Aid Kit - Ghost Town
• First Aid Kit - Emmylou
• Janis Joplin -Summertime
• The Decemberists – Rise to Me
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5F1Mmr6kHpA 
• Sharon Van Etten - One Day 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=asucnxxX83w&feature=endscreen  
• The Veils - The Letter 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HoPNCiilf4
• Fleet Foxes - Grown Ocean 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Pgv6dKV03dA
• Rogue Wave - Every Day 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nF63VHVEx6s&feature=related

• The Head and the Heart - Rivers and Roads 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AclhwQKlgfw
• Shapeshifter - In Colour
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-Yx8VZvz1M 
• The Brunettes - Small Town Crew
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ri3kn696gd4
• Gllian Welch - Miss Ohio
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NPEj63d0jY
• PJ Harvey - Good Fortune
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDBZZ3uvimE 
• Lou Barlow - Legendary
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zv0at0V8LAU

• Sebadoh – Willing to Wait
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpVe3qm4rIA 
• Sebadoh – Flame
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=expcmtqTyC4
• Sebadoh – I Will
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UBWWL0nh9kI
• Jimi Hendrix – Star Spangled Banner
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0WG-ZUUOsg
• Daughter – Youth
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QT5eGHCJdE 
• Mumford and Sons - Little Lion Man
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLJf9qJHR3E 
• Cloud Nothings- 'Stay Useless and 'Fall In' Live on KEXP
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SX9qxzbAu6E 
 • Nirvarna– Lithium
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7Wma-2gXq8&feature=related 
• Belle and Sebastian– I Want The World To Stop
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wjW3tZhdnyw 
• Bruce Springstein- The River
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RR8zDTc0DE
• Daughter – Smother (Live on KEXP)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1CiINFsBkY 

• Sonic Youth - Cool Thing
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDTSUwIZdMk
• The Coup (Boots Riley) – Not Yet Free 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-liNf9GEt8A 
• Shearwater - Hail Mary live at SXSW
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgLvAUuyTeE 
Gil Scott-Heron- The Revolution Will Not Be Televised
• The Coup - Fat Cats and Bigga Fish
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v-rIWUAQuI 
• Bjork – Hyperballad
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Beu3ZLr-UEA
• Of Monsters and Men - Little Talks
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghb6eDopW8I
Cat Power – Metal Heart
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkWGGmnbRrI 
• Lady Lamb The Beekeeper – Bird Ballons
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E-uCX_SJ_mc 
• Pulp - Common People
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuTMWgOduFM 

• Alistair Hulett and Jimmy Gregory – The Internationale 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtAfIjRKUak 
•The War on Drugs – Red Eyes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1LmX5c7HoUw

•Velvet Underground – Sunday Morning
• Joy Division – Atmosphere 
• Sharon Van Etten – Much More Than That
• Led Zeplin – Stairway to Heavan
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Q7Vr3yQYWQ
•Tiny Ruins – You've Got the Kind of Nerve I Like
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRiG9nZ7-tw 
• Yumi Zouma - The Brae (Official Video)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrTMCLxkONk
• PJ Harvey - White Chalk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErU7Pih5zYo 
• Kurt Vile – Waking on a Pretty Daze
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2qA4wkjOhM 
• Sharon Van Etten - Taking Chances
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80-_CpH07QQ 
• Neil Young - Hey, Hey, My, My - Into the Black
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeO5Oe-Hfic
• Pavement - Here
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DRBYrYj144 
• Tike Tane - Dub Soldier
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TP-xlCFhdjk 
• Shapeshifter - In Colour
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-Yx8VZvz1M